globe
  1. Semester 1 148 items
    1. PART 1. THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY ABOUT FASHION & FOOD 89 items
      1. 1. Introduction & what is in your basket of goods? (CM/LC) (w/b 2nd October) 1 item
      2. 2. Framing the study of fashion of food: space, scale & commodity journeys (LC) (w/b 9th October) 36 items
        1. CORE READINGS 13 items
          1. Sociology on the menu - Alan Beardsworth 1996 (Electronic resource)

            Book  In particular Chapter 2 The Making of the Modern Food System

          2. Geographies of food: 'Afters' - Cook, IanHobson, KerstyHallett, LuciusGuthman, JulieMurphy, Andrew Feb 2011

            Article 

          3. Ugly beautiful?: Counting the cost of the global fashion industry - Louise Crewe 2008

            Book  Crewe, L. (2008) Ugly beautiful: counting the cost of the global fashion industry Geography, Part 1, Spring, pp 25 -33

        2. WIDER READING 23 items
          Starred readings being particularly useful
          1. * Sociology on the menu - Alan Beardsworth 1996 (Electronic resource)

            Book  In particular Chapter 2 The Making of the Modern Food System

          2. Geographies of food: following - Ian Cook et al. 10/2006

            Article  (this and the subsequent 2 sources review of some recent food related work in human geography)

          3. Ugly beautiful?: Counting the cost of the global fashion industry - Louise Crewe 2008

            Book  Crewe, L. (2008) Ugly beautiful: counting the cost of the global fashion industry Geography, Part 1, Spring, pp 25 -33

          4. Threads of labour: garment industry supply chains from the workers' perspective - Angela Hale, Jane Wills 2005

            Book 

      3. 3. The body, food & fashion (LC) (w/b 16th October) 43 items
        1. CORE READING 8 items
          1. Ugly beautiful?: Counting the cost of the global fashion industry - Louise Crewe 2008

            Book  Crewe, L. (2008) Ugly beautiful: counting the cost of the global fashion industry Geography, Part 1, Spring, pp 25 -33

          2. Fashion and Anxiety - Alison Clarke, Daniel Miller 05/2002

            Article 

        2. WIDER READING 35 items
          1. Heroin Chic - Rebecca Arnold 08/1999

            Article 

          2. Serious shopping: psychotherapy and consumerism - Adrienne Baker 2000

            Book 

          3. I shop, therefore I am: compulsive buying and the search for self - April Lane Benson c2000

            Book 

          4. Dress sense: emotional and sensory experiences of the body and clothes - Donald Clay Johnson, Helen Bradley Foster 2007

            Book 

          5. * Ugly beautiful?: Counting the cost of the global fashion industry - Louise Crewe 2008

            Book  Crewe, L. (2008) Ugly beautiful: counting the cost of the global fashion industry Geography, Part 1, Spring, pp 25 -33

          6. Womansize: the tyranny of slenderness - Kim Chernin 1983, c1981

            Book 

          7. Taking back taste: feminism, food and visceral politics - Allison Hayes-Conroy, Jessica Hayes-Conroy 10/2008

            Article 

          8. * Fashion and Anxiety - Alison Clarke, Daniel Miller 05/2002

            Article 

          9. * Body dressing - Joanne Entwistle, Elizabeth Wilson 2001

            Book 

          10. Through the wardrobe: women's relationships with their clothes - Alison Guy, Eileen Green, Maura Banim 2001

            Book 

          11. Slimming Lines - Ingun Grimstad Klepp 12/2011

            Article 

          12. The Self as Image - Llewellyn Negrin 06/1999

            Article 

      4. 4. Who eats, who governs food? Food subjectivities & institutions (CM) (w/b 23rd October) 9 items
        1. CORE READING 8 items
          1. Citizenship and Consumption: Mobilisation in Alternative Food Systems in France - Sophie Dubuisson-Quellier, Claire Lamine, Ronan Le Velly 07/2011

            Article 

        2. WIDER READING 1 item
      5. 5. SEMINAR 1: The body, food & fashion (KP, LC, CM) (w/b 30th October) Compulsory readings for the seminar to be supplied separately 0 items
      6. FIELDWORK WEEK (w/b 6th November) 0 items
    2. PART 2: ‘BIG’ FASHION & FOOD 59 items
      1. 6. Big food (CM) (w/b 13th November) 33 items
        1. CORE READING 2 items
          1. From farming to agri-business, from: Geographies of global change: remapping the world - S. Whatmore

            Chapter 

        2. WIDER READING 31 items
          Note that many of the readings listed here are also relevant to the session on ‘governing food’, particularly those that address the role of supermarkets and private food standards.
          1. Agriculture and Human Values Jun 2013

            Journal  Special issue of this journal on the changing role of supermarkets in global supply chains.

          2. * Food in society: economy, culture, geography - P. J. Atkins, Ian R. Bowler 2007, c2001

            Book 

          3. * The real cost of cheap food - Michael S. Carolan 2011 (electronic resource)

            Book 

          4. Refashioning nature: food, ecology and culture - David Goodman, M. R. Redclift 1991

            Book  (good on the origins and implications of the modern agro-food system. See, for example, chapters 3 and 5)

          5. * Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring - Goodman, David

            Book  This is an excellent, and very varied collection of chapters concerning various aspects of the globalisation of food supply systems, mostly drawing on specific case studies. A little bit dated, but still key reading.

          6. Restructuring pork production, remaking rural Iowa, from: Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring - B. Page

            Chapter  (on the integration of pigmeat production and processing in the American mid-West through the increasing involvement of large corporate interests)

          7. Agro-industrial just-in-time: the chicken industry and post-war American capitalism, from: Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring - M. Watts, W. Boyd

            Chapter  (how the food industry is paralleling trends in other industries, to an extent at least. Shows how value is created at different stages of a food chain)*

          8. Holloway, L. (forthcoming) The Geographies of Food. Chapter 4: What happens to food? Geographies of mobility and transformation. Routledge: London. [Available as pdf on Moodle]

          9. Food wars: the global battle for mouths, minds and markets - Tim Lang, Michael Heasman, MyiLibrary 2015 (electronic resource)

            Book  (interesting thesis about 3 competing food supply paradigms, including the dominant ‘productionist’ paradigm, and alternative ‘life sciences’ and ‘ecological’ paradigms. See especially chapters 1 and 4 re. this session)

          10. A 'Fresh' Place in Food's Space - Richard Le Heron and Michael Roche 1995

            Article 

          11. A 'Fresh' Place in Food's Space - Richard Le Heron and Michael Roche 1995

            Article 

          12. Spacing the Can: Empire, Modernity, and the Globalisation of Food - Simon Naylor 09/2000

            Article  [A readable account of how the development of one technology – canning – was crucial to the development of global food systems]

          13. Fast food nation: the dark side of the all-American meal - Eric Schlosser 2001

            Book  [There is also a film of this book]

          14. The dictionary of human geography - Derek Gregory 2009 ([electronic resource])

            Book  Useful background entries include: agrarian question; agricultural geography; agribusiness; agro-food system; food, geographies of food and foodways.

          15. The media on big food: 2 items
      2. 7. Film screening Food Inc. AND SEMINAR 2: big food (CM & KP) (w/b 20th November) 3 items
        1. Compulsory readings for the seminar 3 items
      3. 8. Big fashion: corporate power in a concentrated system (LC) (w/b 27th November) 23 items
        1. CORE READING 5 items
          1. Zara: Fast Fashion - P. Ghemawat, J. Nueno April 2003

            Article 

        2. WIDER READING 18 items
          1. Fashion at the edge: spectacle, modernity and deathliness - Caroline Evans 2007

            Book 

          2. * The national fabric: Britain, Britishness, globalization - Alison L. Goodrum c2005

            Book 

          3. * Zara: Fast Fashion - P. Ghemawat, J. Nueno April 2003

            Article 

          4. * No logo - Naomi Klein 2000

            Book 

          5. * To die for: is fashion wearing out the world? - Lucy Siegle 2008

            Book 

          6. * No sweat: fashion, free trade, and the rights of garment workers - Andrew Ross 1997

            Book 

      4. 9. Film screening of The True Cost (KP) (w/b 4th December) 0 items
      5. 10. TIMED ESSAY IN-CLASS (w/b 11th December) 0 items
  2. Semester 2 297 items
    1. PART 3: PLACE, PROVENANCE & TIME 48 items
      1. 11. Branding, luxury and flagship stores (LC) (w/b 29th Jan) 48 items
        1. Core Reading 4 items
          1. The flagship format within the luxury fashion market - Karinna Nobbs, Christopher M. Moore, Mandy Sheridan 09/11/2012

            Article 

        2. Wider Reading 44 items
          1. * Brands: meaning and value in media culture - Adam Arvidsson 2006

            Book 

          2. Capgemini (2013), World Wealth Report, Capgemini, London (availble at https://www.worldwealthreport.com/ - registration required)

          3. Fashion Retail (Interior Angles) - Eleanor Curtis April 28, 2006

            Book 

          4. The internationalization of the high fashion brand: the case of central London - Fernie, JohnMoore, ChristopherLawrie, AlexanderHallsworth, Alan 1997

            Article 

          5. The anatomy of the luxury fashion brand - Fionda, Antoinette MMoore, Christopher M Mar-May 2009

            Article 

          6. The national fabric: Britain, Britishness, globalization - Alison L. Goodrum c2005

            Book 

          7. Prada - Rem Koolhaas, Jens Hommert, Michael Kubo, Prada (Firm) c2001

            Book 

          8. Themed flagship brand stores in the new millennium - Robert V Kozinets, John F Sherry, Benet DeBerry-Spence, Adam Duhachek 2002-3

            Article 

          9. Ledbury Research and Walpole (2013), The UK Luxury Benchmark Report, Ledbury Research, London. 

          10. The flagship format within the luxury fashion market - Nobbs, KarinnaMoore, Christopher MSheridan, Mandy 2012

            Article 

          11. Passariello, C. and Dodes, R. (2007), 'Art in fashion: luxury boutiques dress up as galleries', Wall Street Journal, February 16, p. 8.

          12. Pereira, M., Azevedo, S., Bernardo, V., Moreira Da Sila, F., Miguel, R., and Lucas, J., (2010), 'The Effect of Visual Merchandising on Fashion Stores in Shopping Centres'. Fifth International textile, Clothing and Design Conference – Magic World of Textiles

          13. The fashion of architecture - Bradley Quinn 2003

            Book 

          14. Constructing luxury brands: exploring the role of consumer discourse - Roper, StuartCaruana, RobertMedway, DominicMurphy, Phil 2013

            Article 

          15. Trading Up - Michael J. Silverstein, Neil Fiske, John Butman April 29, 2008 (Paperback)

            Book 

          16. Co-creating value for luxury brands - Caroline Tynan, Sally McKechnie, Celine Chhuon 11/2010

            Article 

    2. 12. Slow fashion (KP) (w/b 5th Feb) 37 items
      1. Core Reading 8 items
        1. The geographies of fashion: consumption, space and value - Louise Crewe 2017

          Book  Esp Chapter 4 and Chapter 5

        2. Fashion & Sustainability: Design for Change - Kate Fletcher 12 Mar. 2012

          Book  Esp Chapter 10 and 12

        3. Fast Fashion, Sustainability, and the Ethical Appeal of Luxury Brands - Annamma Joy, John F. Sherry, Alladi Venkatesh, Jeff Wang 09/2012

          Article 

      2. Wider Reading 16 items
        1. Langdown, A. (2014). Slow fashion as an alternative to mass production: A fashion practitioner's journey. Social Business, 4(1), 33-43.

        2. Slow Fashion - Safia Minney 21 Mar. 2016

          Book 

        3. Slow Living - Wendy Parkins and Geoffrey Craig 2006

          Book  Esp Chapter 1: Slow Living in the Global Everyday, Chapter 3: Time and Speed, and Chapter 4: Space and Place

        4. ‘Slow’ Books in the Popular Press 3 items
          1. In praise of slowness - Carl Honoré 2005

            Book 

          2. New Slow City: Living Simply in the World's Fastest City - William Powers 11 Dec. 2014

            Book 

        5. Films/Videos 0 items
          There is great content online that can help you with the material in this course. Please find below suggested online videos that speak to the theme of the lecture;
      3. Slow/Ethical/Green Fashion 13 items
        1. Kate Fletcher, Sow To Sew Conference, NSCAD University, September 27, 2013 - YouTube

          Audio-visual document  Kate Fletcher talking at the Sow to Sew Conference, NSCAD University, 27th September, 2013: This is a great talk if you are interested in exploring the political underpinnings of Slow Fashion, and the socio-economic framing that is used by Fletcher:

        2. The Slow Revolution

          Audio-visual document  The Slow Revolution (31st October, 2012) This talk was organized by the RSA, exploring society’s relationship with speed. This is a great talk to explore the relationship between Slow Philosophy, Slow Food and Slow Thinking.

        3. Finding your Inner Tortoise - The Slow Movement by Carl Honore

          Audio-visual document  Finding your Inner Tortoise - The Slow Movement by Carl Honore (13th January, 2017) A reflection on the Slow Movement by one of the key thinkers of the Slow movement, Carl Honore. – Pay particular attention to the political language that is used within this video- ‘virus’, ‘putting on the brakes’ – as well as assumed relationships between tech (being fast and bad) and slow ritual (yoga, gardening etc)

        4. Carl Honore: In praise of slowness

          Audio-visual document  Carl Honore: In praise of slowness (23rd March, 2007) A seminal talk on ‘slowness’ and ‘slow philosophy’

        5. TEXTILES - Sustainable Fashion - Kate Fletcher

          Audio-visual document  TEXTILES - Sustainable Fashion - Kate Fletcher (2nd December, 2016) Kate Fletcher speaking as part of the ‘Hay Level’ series, introducing her work on ‘sustainable’ fashion and finding her passion for finding a new sustainable futures for the fashion industry. Pay particular attention to her comments on connection, humanity and what is to be human.

        6. Eco Fashion Brand is Upcycling Over 100,000 Sweaters Every Year - Slow Fashion

          Audio-visual document  Eco Fashion Brand is Upcycling Over 100,000 Sweaters Every Year - Slow Fashion The Exploring Alternatives series takes a look at an ‘eco-fashion’ brand (preloved) run by Julia Grieve. It might be useful when watching this to think through what the implications are, of thinking through ‘Slow Fashion’ in this way? If we do perceive ‘slow fashion’ as being an eco-fashion practice, does it make it marginal? Scalability? Is this desirable?

        7. Slow fashion - The Feed - YouTube

          Audio-visual document  Slow Fashion- The Feed (July 7th, 2016) A nice video that explores the relationship with our clothes, purchasing, and disposal. It is short (just 7 minutes long) and accessible. Explores these themes within the Australian context

        8. 'My shirts last half a century' - BBC News

          Webpage  Slow Fashion: 'You can wear my shirts for 50 years' A great video as part of the BBC’s ‘My Shop’ series which looked into alternative shopping practices/concept stores. Have a look at the ‘Slow Fashion’ episode. What type of shopper? What are the impacts on WHO gets to shop (price etc?)

        9. How to Engage with Ethical Fashion | Clara Vuletich | TEDxSydney - YouTube

          Audio-visual document  How to Engage with Ethical Fashion | Clara Vuletich | TEDxSydney (14th June, 2016) Clara is a designer, researcher, educator and consultant who has worked in the sustainable fashion space in UK and Europe for ten years, and is now based in Sydney, Australia. She was part of the team at the University of the Arts London who designed The TEN, a pioneering sustainable design methodology used by brands including H & M; VF. Corp. and Gucci Group. Clara has recently established a consultancy business that utilises The TEN framework to equip Australian fashion companies with training and insight on sustainable product innovation and strategy.

        10. Redressing the Fashion Industry: Orsola de Castro at TEDxLondonBusinessSchool 2013 - YouTube

          Audio-visual document  Redressing the Fashion Industry: Orsola de Castro at TEDxLondonBusinessSchool 2013 (22nd May, 2013)

    3. 13. Place, provenance and the alternative food sector (CM w/b 12th Feb) 50 items
      1. Core Reading 9 items
        1. Alternative Food Geographies: Representation and Practice - Maye, Damian

          Book  Particularly chapter 1: Introducing alternative food geographies

        2. What's Alternative about Alternative Food Networks? - Sarah Whatmore, Pierre Stassart, Henk Renting 03/2003

          Article 

      2. Wider Reading 41 items
        1. Alternative food networks: knowledge, practice, and politics - David Goodman, E. Melanie DuPuis, Michael K. Goodman 2012

          Book  and see also the set of papers offering commentary on this text published in the International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, vol 20, no. 3, 383-431

        2. Mapping local foods: evidence from two English regions - Ilbery, BrianWatts, DavidSimpson, SueGilg, AndrewLittle, Jo 2006

          Article 

        3. * Regional foods and rural development: The role of product qualification - Angela Tregear, Filippo Arfini, Giovanni Belletti, Andrea Marescotti 2007-1

          Article 

    4. 14. Slow food (RH) (w/b 19th Feb) 40 items
      1. Core Reading 8 items
        1. Consumption, Pleasure and Politics - Roberta Sassatelli, Federica Davolio 07/2010

          Article 

      2. Wider Reading 32 items
        ***Whilst this lecture will focus on the Slow Food Movement, particularly in Italy, a number the ideas discussed in the general and core readings for other lectures in the Place, Provenance and the Alternative Food Sector session are also relevant, very much so in fact! ***
        1. Atkinson, D., Gibbs, D. and Reimer, S.  (2007) Quality food, 'authentic' production and rural development in Campania, Rivista Geografica Italiana, 114, (3), 363-396.

        2. Social geography I - Vincent J Del Casino 12/2015

          Article 

        3. Visceral Difference: Variations in Feeling (Slow) Food - Allison Hayes-Conroy, Jessica Hayes-Conroy 12/2010

          Article 

        4. Out of Time - Wendy Parkins 09/2004

          Article 

        5. * Consumption, Pleasure and Politics - Roberta Sassatelli, Federica Davolio 07/2010

          Article 

        6. Better than text? Critical reflections on the practices of visceral methodologies in human geography - Alexandra E. Sexton, Allison Hayes-Conroy, Elizabeth L. Sweet, Mara Miele 06/2017

          Article 

        7. What's Alternative about Alternative Food Networks? - Sarah Whatmore, Pierre Stassart, Henk Renting 03/2003

          Article 

    5. 15. Digital disruption (LC) (w/b 26th Feb) 36 items
      1. Core Reading 7 items
        1. Being digital - Nicholas Negroponte 1996

          Book 

        2. The future of competition: co-creating unique value with customers - C. K. Prahalad, Venkatram Ramaswamy 2006, c2004

          Book 

      2. Wider Reading 29 items
        1. Remediation: understanding new media - J. David Bolter, Richard A. Grusin c1999

          Book 

        2. Ubiquitous Media - Mike Featherstone 03/2009

          Article 

        3. Worlds of e-commerce: economic, geographical and social dimensions - Thomas R. Leinbach, Stanley D. Brunn c2001

          Book 

        4. * Being digital - Nicholas Negroponte 1996

          Book 

        5. * The future of competition: co-creating unique value with customers - C. K. Prahalad, Venkatram Ramaswamy 2006, c2004

          Book 

        6. Fashion futures - Bradley Quinn 2012

          Book 

        7. Production, Consumption, Prosumption - George Ritzer, Nathan Jurgenson 03/2010

          Article 

        8. Information rules: a strategic guide to the network economy - Carl Shapiro, Hal R. Varian 1999

          Book 

        9. Wikinomics: how mass collaboration changes everything - Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams 2008

          Book 

        10. Alone together: why we expect more from technology and less from each other - Sherry Turkle c2011

          Book 

    6. 16. SEMINAR 3: Place, provenance and the alternative food sector (CM/KP) (w/b 5th March) 6 items
      1. Core Reading 3 items
        1. Compulsory readings for the seminar 3 items
          1. Avoiding the Local Trap - Branden Born, Mark Purcell 12/2006

            Article 

      2. Wider Reading 3 items
        This seminar will focus on some of the critical scholarship of alternative food systems. It will be organised around discussion of the following journal articles which you will be expected to read and take notes on before the session and be prepared to talk about your responses to the readings in class.
        1. Compulsory readings for the seminar 3 items
          1. Avoiding the Local Trap - Branden Born, Mark Purcell 12/2006

            Article 

    7. PART 4: CONTENTIOUS COMMODITIES 80 items
      1. 17. Meatification (CM) (w/c 12th March) 9 items
        1. Core Reading 9 items
      2. Wider Reading 40 items
        This session will explore the ‘meatification’ of modern ‘western’ diets i.e. the excessive consumption of meat and other animal products. It is predicted that as development proceeds in countries in the global South increasing amounts of animal proteins will be consumed within the context of a ‘livestock revolution’. However, the adverse environmental, animal and social implications of such dietary shifts have become the subject of critique, from scientists (of different disciplines e.g. nutrition ecologists, medics) and social scientists, long-standing food movements such as vegetarianism and veganism and more recently from newly constituted organisations concerned about climate change and food security
        1. Chapter 18 - Food ethics, food policies and civil society, from: Food in society: economy, culture, geography

          Chapter  contains some basic information about eating and not eating animal products.

        2. The global benefits of eating less meat - CIWF (Compassion in World Farming Trust) 2004

          Document 

        3. * Political ecologies of meat - Jody Emel, Harvey Neo c2015 (electronic resource)

          Book 

        4. Meat: A Natural Symbol - Nick Fiddes 1992

          Book  This is a detailed anthropological analysis of meat eating. A good read but not for the faint hearted!

        5. Food Ethics Council (2001) Farming animals for food: towards a moral menu. Report by the Food Ethics Council, London

        6. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health - Anthony J McMichael, John W Powles, Colin D Butler, Ricardo Uauy 10/2007

          Article 

        7. The way we eat: why our food choices matter - Peter Singer, Jim Mason c2006

          Book 

        8. * Sustainable Development Commission (2009) Setting the table: advice to government on priority elements of sustainable diets. SDC: London

        9. The meat business: devouring a hungry planet - Joyce D'Silva, Geoff Tansey 1999

          Book 

        10. Public health implications of meat production and consumption - Polly Walker, Pamela Rhubart-Berg, Shawn McKenzie, Kristin Kelling 2005-6

          Article 

        11. And to watch on Box of Broadcasts: 2 items
          1. Should I eat meat? The big health dilemma. The first of two BBC2 Horizon programmes presented by Dr Michael Mosley, first broadcast Monday 18th August, 2014

          2. Should I eat meat? How to feed the planet. The second of the two BBC2 Horizon programmes presented by Dr Michael Mosley, first broadcast Thursday 21st August, 2014

      3. 18. Made by, Made of: Bio-commodification, hidden production and exploitation in fashion’s supply chains (LC) (w/b 19th March) 23 items
        1. Core Reading 5 items
          1. Stitched up: the anti-capitalist book of fashion - Tansy E. Hoskins 2014

            Book 

          2. Slave to Fashion - Safia Minney 20 April 2017

            Book 

        2. Wider Reading 18 items
          This lecture explores the questions ‘who are our clothes made by (and under what conditions?)’ and what are our clothes made from (and what are the economic, social and environmental impacts of this). The website and activities of Fashion Revolution will be an important resource for this lecture.
          1. Bigolin, R. (2011) Faux pas? Faking materials and languages of luxury in Ebel, S. and Assouley, O. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference for the International Foundation of Fashion Technology Institute Paris, April 11-15 

          2. Luxury: fashion, lifestyle and excess - Patrizia Calefato c2014

            Book 

          3. Luxury Fashion: A Global History of Heritage Brands - Caroline Cox 7 Nov. 2013

            Book 

          4. Stitched up: the anti-capitalist book of fashion - Tansy E. Hoskins 2014

            Book 

          5. * Valuing the unique: the economics of singularities - Lucien Karpik c2010

            Book 

          6. Kwak, M. And Yoffie, D (2001) Gucci Group Harvard Business School 9-701-037

          7. The global architect: firms, fame and urban form - Donald McNeill 2009

            Book 

          8. Slave to fashion - Safia Minney 2017

            Book 

          9. What money can't buy: the moral limits of markets - Michael J. Sandel 2012

            Book 

          10. There are a number of recent press articles on child labour and slavery in fashion. Here are a selection: 4 items
      4. 19. The new politics of milk (CM) (w/b 23rd April) 8 items
        1. Core Reading 8 items
          1. Nature's perfect food: how milk became America's drink - E. Melanie DuPuis 2002

            Book 

          2. Morris, C. (2017) Framing non-dairy and dairy milks and sustainability. [Unpublished working paper – available as a download from Moodle.]

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